Caffeine over consumption: a human threat

Caffeine (3,7-dihydro-1, 3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2, 6 Dionne),  present about 2 to 4 % of dry basis however, the availability of nutrients in soil affects caffeine content in plants. Caffeine is the most widely consumed behaviorally active substance in the world. Average caffeine consumption in humans can range in different cultures and nations from 80 to 400 mg/person per day. In humans, approximately 80% of caffeine is demethylated to paraxanthine and approximately 16% is converted into theobromine and theophylline in the liver. About 3% of caffeine ingested and more than a dozen of its metabolites can be found in urine. No doubt its moderate consumption provide multiplicity of the health benefits including reduced risk of gallstones formation in humans especially in women and lowers the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in humans. It is also related to decrease the incidence or risk of Parkinson’s disease. But its over consumption is a constant source of danger for the user so its harmful effect should be examine that act as a check on its consumption. Caffeine has a diuretic effect and in healthy volunteers the acute administration of caffeine causes a short-term increase in dieresis. Excessive caffeine consumption causes addiction and lead to caffeinism, a condition that has serious behavioral and physiological side effects. In addition to that caffeine consumption causes the urinary excretion of substances such as sodium, potassium, chlorides, magnesium, and calcium in healthy young females. Chronic caffeine consumption increases the risk of osteoporosis (A disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly) and hip fracture. functional activation of the shell of the nucleus accumbens, an area involved in addiction and reward, was only induced by the highest dose of caffeine 10 (mg/kg). Effect of the caffeine on the cardiovascular system with a slight increase in blood pressure and heart output. It also undergoes biotransformation in the human body to form mentholated derivatives of uric acid. High caffeine consumption causes less chance of pregnancy and/or lead to miscarriage in women. It amplified the increases in blood pressure and heart rate associated with higher levels of self-reported stress and these observed blood pressure elevations reach a maximum 30 to 60 minutes after caffeine administration and persist for several hours. As a result these repeated daily blood pressure elevations and increases in stress reactivity caused by caffeine consumption could contribute to an increased risk of coronary heart disease in the adult population. Moreover, chronic caffeine intake affects renal structure, function and blood pressure in patients with Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disorder frequently associated with renal failure, hypertension and other abnormalities. Hence chronic caffeine intake increase in severity of hypertension in patients with ADPKD, it may be wise for patients with this disease to limit their intake of caffeinated coffee to four or fewer cups per day.

Different scientist studied the contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee in humans. A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consequently caffeine is partly responsible for the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee and consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers.

It was observed that caffeine have the ability to block adenosine receptors at low concentrations even after a single cup of coffee, but other mechanisms of action such as inhibition of phosphodiesterase and mobilization of intracellular calcium demand higher concentrations of caffeine. In addition the CNS effects of caffeine are mediated particularly by its antagonistic actions at the A1 and A2A subtypes of the adenosine receptors. Adenosine A1 receptors are present in almost all brain areas. Consequently the intake of a high dose of caffeine is not reinforced by positive and pleasant behavioral effects.

Caffeine causes a harmful effect on renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. It was toxic and very strong additive. Consequently the chronic excess ingestion of no steroid anti-inflammatory drugs such as caffeine causes renal medullary necrosis. It was strongly suggested that caffeine in beverages like tea and coffee increases the risk of hypertension and its regular intake increases BP. Further more found that caffeine and diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee increase the risk of coronary heart disease while the lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee.

By Ali Imran Phd.Scholar

    

One Response to “Caffeine over consumption: a human threat”

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