Plastic Surgery

When listening by your buddies at a gossip conversation or by a colleague sitting in office about what plastic surgery did miraculously with famous Film and TV stars; you must have wonder at what plastic surgery is in real and how did it brings the magic. This article stealthily is about to bring a deep insight on the topic through which you will be able to know what is plastic surgery? How does it evolve in its different procedures? How did human civilization incorporate it? And what wonders can it make?

Plastic surgery is a sort of specialist through which a defected body part is corrected or restored to its original shape. If not away; you must have heard the term sculpting which denotes the art of sculpture making through the melt able things, here in the term plastic surgery, surgery stands for the same meaning as it is derived through Greek word Sculpting. Right now; I’ll not go in details how the things are melted for the restoration of human body parts as the later part of my article will deal with it. Here I’ll start the story how today’s modern plastic surgery ultimately came up to here? In 600 BC in India the art of plastic surgery was known and was performed equally. Wondered?  Yes, the father of Plastic surgery; Sushruta was aware of many surgical procedures and was renowned for his art.

Sushruta had a credit of having medical knowledge on the surgery and wrote his papers on the art of surgery in Sanskrit which was later on translated in Arabic. Arabs learnt the art and added to its little expertise. These were Arabs who took this art to Europe where it was warmly sought and later on European traveled to India for seeing the demonstration and the ways with which Indians carried out plastic surgery. It is also traced that early Egyptians and the Romans knew this art as well. Romans knew and performed simple techniques of plastic surgery such as restoration of human ear defected by the burns but by the religious restrictions; they never dissected animals or the human beings for the reason; their knowledge was entirely based on the texts of their Greek predecessors.

20th century proved a milestone and the progress was remarkable. It was an English man Harold Gillis who developed many surgery techniques for the treatment and the restoration of the sufferings of the soldiers from World War I; he volunteered to France with Red Cross and worked a lot for the treatment of these soldiers. His particular success in this field led United States Army to hire two men who learnt the art from Gillies. Gillies’ art was carried out till World War II by his cousin and his pupil. In 1946; it was again Gillies who successfully performed female to male sex reassignment surgery and marked the decade with the successful turn out.

Plastic surgery is done either for the correction of form or for the function. The most famous is the reconstructive one which is operated mostly for the correction of function and somehow for the appearance as well. It is used for the impairments caused by the burns, trauma injuries which include facial bones and breaks, congenital abnormalities which are mostly cleft palates or cleft lips. The most common plastic surgery procedures which use reconstructive mode are of the tumor removal, breast reduction, hand surgery, stone removal, and laceration repair and breast reconstruction. As per the estimation made after the survey from the US surgeons the number of women going for the reconstructive surgery for the reduction of breast increased by 2 percent in 2007 than it was a year before.

Similarly men using plastic surgery for the reconstruction of breast increased in number by 7 percent than the previous year. Plastic surgeons use microsurgery in which a foreign tissue is transported for the plantation of the defected tissue if there is no local tissue available for the purpose.

Other common form of the plastic surgery is of the cosmetic surgery which is perfectly and ideally done for the aesthetic purposes. The purpose of this type of surgery is mostly to get the enhancement of the appearance close to the ideal or the perfection. The trend of cosmetic surgery increased unanimously and about 12 million people had cosmetic surgery only in United States in 2007 which is undoubtedly a great number and this number grew every year till now. Cosmetic surgery is for the correction of form in which the original appearance is restored or it is about the molding of the original features for the enhancement of the beauty. Not only the beauty freaks women but fashion forward men also lurk for the cosmetic surgery. Most common procedures of cosmetic surgery include nasal surgery, liposuction and eyelid surgery.

It may become difficult to capsulate the whole of the plastic surgery in a single article as it is quite a broad field and can be further subdivided. Apart from the cosmetic and the reconstructive surgery there are many other types of surgeries which are successfully operated for different purposes. In my next article, I’ll talk about the subdivisions of the plastic surgery in detail other than these two main domains. Plastic surgery is not only done for the health purposes but equally for the beauty purposes as well.

By: Ammarah Khan

    

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