Enzymes are fascinating from a medical scientific and even philosophical point of view. Enzymes system constitute and essential components of life for human, animals, plant and all micro-organism .we require enzymes not only to eat ,digest and absorb our nutrients, but also to see ,hear, smell, taste, breathe and move. enzymes are required for our blood and coagulation system ,cardiovascular function, kidney, liver, elimination of toxic products, excretion, reproduction etc. they are required even to think, dream or for sexual excitement or activity. When enzyme activity stops, life stops and the person dies.
The orally administered hydrolytic enzyme was first discovered by Dr Max Wolf the pioneer physician often regarded as “FATHER OF ENZYME” Dr wolf injected indigo blue dye into the skin of back of laboratory animals creating a dim sized blue spot.
He then administered oral placebo and the spot showed little change .when the administered oral hydrolytic enzyme the blue spot site would spread to cover the entire back of the animal with in 2 to 3 hours after administration. he was impressed by this finding and inspired to continue his research. because the technique available at the time could not properly confirm absorption into the blood circulation or lymphatics, emphasis was placed on demonstration of pharmacological and clinical effects.
What are Enzymes? The word enzyme comes from the Greekword enzymos, which means leavened or fermented.
Enzymes are group of proteins that regulates biological reactions in our bodies. they are called biological catalyst which drive the chemical reactions that take place inside our cells. catalyst are substances that effect the rate at which chemical reaction occur. they take part in chemical reactions ,but are not changed chemically in the overall reaction. Biological catalyst, or enzymes as they are called are very specific in their actions
Overall 3000 enzymes are known to us. Enzymes work in our bodies to help us digest our food. conduct nerve impulses throughout our bodies and breakdown carbohydrate, lipids, proteins into smaller molecules. if even one enzyme is missing in the body ,the result can be disastrous.
There are two types of enzymes: simple enzymes and conjugated enzymes.
Simple enzyme are protein that are composed entirely of amino acids. e.g of simple enzymes are pepsin ,trypsin and chemotrypsin. They are entirely protein in composition.
Conjugated enzymes are composed of a protein group and non protein group. The non protein group is called cofactor. Cofactors can be metal ions such as Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn3+Mg2+Zn2+Cu2+ or they can be organic molecules, when the cofactor of an enzyme is a complex organic molecules ,it is called coenzyme. The cofactor is essential for the biological activity of the conjugated enzyme. some require both kinds of cofactors, a metal ion and a coenzyme, to be biologically active. Many of the vitamins are coenzymes
ENZYME IN NATURE SINCE ADAM
Had his mind not been elsewhere, Adam might have observed an exemple of such enzymatic activity after having bitten into the fruit offered to him by Eve. As many theologians believe that the fruit was an apple .the surface of the apple where the bite had been taken becomes coated with an ever browner layer. This process which is set in action by enzyme is the apple’s immediate attempt to close this large wound. It is the protection layer intened to prevent the inside of the apple from drying out and being attacked by becteria, moulds and other dangers. At the same time, a healing process is set in motion by other enzymes just under the protection surface, to pressure the rest of the apple.
There are six main groups of enzymes, each having fundamentally different activities Hydrolases break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats such as during the process of digestion. They do this by adding a water molecule, thus the name hydrolases. Isomerases catalyze the rearrangement of chemical groups within the same molecule. The ligases catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules through the use of an energy source. Lyases catalyze the formation of double bonds between atoms by adding or subtracting chemical groups.Oxidoreductases make oxidation-reduction (the process by which an atom loses an electron to another atom) possible. Transferasestransfer chemical groups from one molecule to another.
Enzymes are wondrous aids used to improve health, maintain wellness, and fight disease and injuries. Scientific investigations of enzymes taken from plants, animals, and microbial sources have been ongoing for over forty years. Acting as catalysts, enzymes are best known for their ability to aid digestion and ease digestive problems. Treatment of some conditions requires that enzymes be absorbed into the bloodstream. This treatment is referred to as
Systemic enzyme therapy.
Supplemental enzymes are frequently used as digestive aids. In fact, papaya has been used as a digestive aid for centuries because of its enzyme papain.pineapple contain bromelain although scarcely any can be found in canned pineapples. The primary goal of digestive enzymes is to
break food down into smaller particles so that the body can more easily absorb the nutrients in the food. The majority of this work is completed in the stomach and subsequently the small intestine.
The enzymes used most frequently to treat digestive problems include proteases, amylases, and lipases. Each digestive enzyme is very specific and works on a different
Research has shown that a number of conditions, including acne, aging, allergies, autoimmune conditions, cancer, circulatory diseases, health conditions requiring detoxification, infections, inflammation, injuries, rheumatic diseases, skin problems, sports and other injuries, and viruses can all be treated with enzymes,
Although there is variation among individuals, our bodies ‘enzymatic activity generally begins to decline somewhere between the ages of sixteen and twenty, as our growth peaks. At this time,
The rate of tissue reproduction tends to decrease, and what we refer to as aging begins. Since every activity in the body requires enzymes, replenishing the enzyme supply lost with aging can
Restore your body’s natural enzyme balance. This, in turn, can help fight disease and improve your health status. This is why systemic enzyme therapy is effective against such a wide variety of Conditions. The type of enzyme you take, the dosage level, individual variables (such as height, weight, general health, lifestyle, and dietary patterns), and the condition being treated can all influence how rapidly you respond to enzyme therapy. For instance, if you are taking enzymes to improve digestion, you should notice an improvement within a couple of hours. If not, perhaps you need to increase the dose. If improvement still is not seen, analyze your diet and make sure you’re taking the proper type of enzyme to digest what you eat, or that you don’t have some other illness (for instance, a heart condition) that is mimicking a digestive problem. Generally speaking, when enzymes are taken to treat an inflammatory condition or one involving pain, some improvement will be noted within three to seven days. Chronic conditions such
As rheumatoid arthritis may require one to three months (or more) before you notice a change in your symptoms. In addition, some conditions have periods of waxing and waning (such as
Rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis)—times when the symptoms may be markedly worse or, perhaps, a little better. When the condition is worse (or when you notice an exacerbation
Of symptoms), it’s important to increase the dose.
There are also some enzymes administered primarily by injection, which is done in a doctor’s office or hospital. When administered in this way, absorption is not of critical importance,
Since they are injected directly into the bloodstream or into tissue. Those enzymes administered by injection include brinase, chymopapain, collagenase, hyaluronidase, lysozyme, plasmin,
Streptokinase, streptodor-nase, and urokinase. However, collagenase and hyaluronidase can also be administered topically. Other enzymes that can be taken by injection include carbohydrase,
Chymotrypsin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trypsin. It should be noted, however, that inject able enzymes should be used with caution. They can cause very serious side effects, such as anaphylactic shock, and are only used by physicians in severe life threatening situations.
DR S REHAN HAIDER